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Травянистые сообщества на выходах мела в Европе

 

Plants

 

  1. Adamson R.S. 1922. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk. The Woodlands of Ditchman Park, Hampshire. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 9 (2). P. 113-219. in five parts see
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255398, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255399, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255400, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255401, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255402
  2. Anderson V.L. 1927. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk: V. The Water Economy of the Chalk Flora. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 15 (1). P. 72-129. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2256065
  3. Bobbink R. 1989. Brachypodium pinnatum and the species diversity in chalk grassland. Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  4. Bobbink, R. 1991. Effects of nutrient enrichment in Dutch chalk grassland. – Journal of Applied Ecology 28 (1): 28–41. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2404111
  5. Bobbink, R., Bik L., Willems J.H. 1988. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on vegetation structure and dominance of Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) Beauv. in chalk grassland. – Acta Botanica Neerlandica. Vol. 37. P. 231-242.
  6. Bobbink L., Willems J.H. 1987. Increasing dominance of Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) Beauv. in chalk grasslands: a threat to a species-rich ecosystem. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 40 (4). P. 301-314. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320787901224
  7. Bobbink R., Willems J.H. 1991. Impact of different cutting regimes on the performance of Brachypodium pinnatum in Dutch chalk grassland. - Biological Conservation. Vol. 56. (1). P. 1-21. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000632079190085N
  8. Davis B.N.K. 1977. The Hieracium flora of chalk and limestone quarries in England // Watsonia. Vol. 11. P. 345-351. http://www.archive.bsbi.org.uk/Wats11p345.pdf
  9. Davis B.N.K. Regional variation in Quarries. 1981. – In: Davis B. N. K. (ed.), Ecology of quarries: the importance of natural vegetation. Proceeding of a Workshop held at Monks Wood Experimental station. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge. P. 12-19. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/5983/1/11.pdf
  10. De Kroon H., Bobbink R. 1997. Clonal plant dominance under elevated nitrogen deposition with special reference to Brachypodium pinnatum chalk grassland (In: The ecology and evolution of clonal plants, Eds: H. De Kroon, J. Van Groenendael) - Backhuys Publishers. Leiden. P. 359-379.
  11. De Kroon H., Knops J. 1990. Habitat exploration through morphological plasticity in two chalk grassland perennials. – Oikos. Vol. 59 (1). P. 39-49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3545120
  12. Denyer J.L. 2005. Interactions between rabbits, plants and soil and their consequences for chalk grassland and chalk heath vegetation communities. – D. Phil. thesis. University of Sussex.
  13. Dutoit Th., Alard D. 1995. Permanent seed banks in chalk grassland under various management regimes: their role in the restoration of species-rich plant communities. – Biodiversity and Conservation. Vol. 4 (9). P. 939-950. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00058205
  14. Finegan B.G., Harvey H.J. 1981. The dynamics of chalk quarry vegetation. – In: Davis B.N.K. (ed.), Ecology of quarries: the importance of natural vegetation. Proceeding of a Workshop held at Monks Wood Experimental station. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge. P. 41-46. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/5983/1/11.pdf
  15. Grubb P.J. 1976. A theoretical background to the conservation of ecologically distinct groups of annuals and biennials in the chalk grassland ecosystem. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 10 (1). P. 53-76. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320776900252
  16. Grubb P.J., Key B.A. 1975. Clearance of scrub and re-establishment of chalk grassland on the Devil’s Dyke. – Nature in Cambridgeshire. Vol. 18. P. 18-23.
  17. Hennekens, S. M., J. H. J. Schaminée, and V. Westhoff. 1985. The development of chalk grassland on abandoned fields in South Limburg, The Netherlands. – Colloques Phytosociologiques 11: 471-485.
  18. Hodgson J.G. The botanical interest and value of quarries. – In: Davis B. N. K. (ed.), Ecology of quarries: the importance of natural vegetation. Proceeding of a Workshop held at Monks Wood Experimental station. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge. P. 3-11. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/5983/1/11.pdf
  19. Hope-Simpson J.F. 1940. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk: VI. Late Stages in Succession Leading to Chalk Grassland. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 28 (2). P. 386-402. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2256236
  20. Hope-Simpson J.F. 1941. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk: VIII. A Second Survey of the Chalk Grasslands of the South Downs. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 29 (2). P. 217-267. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2256393
  21. Hurst A., John E. 1999. The biotic and abiotic changes associated with Brachypodium pinnatum dominance in chalk grassland in south-east England. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 88 (1). P. 75-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320798000895
  22. Hutchings M. J. Booth K. D. 1996. Studies on the feasibility or re-creating chalk grassland vegetation on ex-arable land. I. The potential roles of the seed bank and the seed rain. – Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol. 33. № 5. P. 1171-1181. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2404696
  23. Kelly D. 1989a. Demography of short-lived plants in chalk grassland. I Life cycle variation in annuals and strict biennials. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 77 (3). P. 747-769. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260983
  24. Kelly D. 1989b. Demography of short-lived plants in chalk grassland. II Control of mortality and fecundity. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 77 (3). P. 770-784. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260984
  25. Lack A.J. 1982. The ecology of flowers of chalk grassland and their insect pollinators. – Journal Ecology. Vol. 70 (3). P. 773-790. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260104
  26. Mitchley J., Grubb P.J. 1986. Control of relative abundance of perennials in chalk grassland in southern England. 1. Constancy of rank order and results of pot- and field-experiments on the role of interference. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 74 (4). P. 1139-1166. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260240
  27. Mitchley J., Willems J.H. 1995. Vertical canopy structure of Dutch chalk grasslands in relation to their management. – Vegetatio. Vol. 117 (1). P. 17-27. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00033256
  28. Smith C.J. 1980. Ecology of the English chalk. Academic Press, London. 573 p.
  29. Tansley A.G. 1922. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk: II. Early Stages of Redevelopment of Woody Vegetation on Chalk Grassland. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 10 (2). P. 168-177. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255738
  30. Tansley A.G., Adamson R.S. 1925. Studies of the vegetation of the English Chalk III. The Chalk Grasslands of the Hampshire -Sussex border. – J. of Ecology. Vol. 13 (2). P. 177-223. http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/100papers/100_Ecological_Papers/100_Influential_Papers_031.pdf
  31. Tansley A.G., Adamson R.S. 1926. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk: IV. A Preliminary Survey of the Chalk Grasslands of the Sussex Downs. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 14 (1). P. 1-32. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2255780
  32. Verkaar H.J., Schenkeveld A.J., 1984. On the ecology of short-lived forbs in chalk grasslands: Life-history characteristics. – New Phytol. Vol. 98. P. 659-672. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1984.tb04155.x/pdf
  33. Willems J.H. 1978. Observations on north-west European limestone grassland communities: phytosociological and ecological notes on chalk grasslands of southern England. – Vegetatio. Vol. 37 (3). P. 141-150. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00717648
  34. Willems J.H. 1983. Species composition and above-ground phytomass in chalk grassland with different management. – Vegetatio. Vol. 52 (3). P. 171-180. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20037205
  35. Willems J.H. 1995. Soil seed bank, seedling recruitment and actual species composition in an old and isolated chalk grassland site. – Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica. Vol. 30. P. 141-156.
  36. Willems J.H., Bobbink R. 1990. Spatial processes in the succession of chalk grassland on old fields in The Netherlands. Pages 237–249 in F. Krahulec, A. D. Q. Agnew, S. Agnew, and J. H. Willems, editors. Spatial processes in plant communities. Academia Press, Prague, Czech Republic.
  37. Willems J.H., Peet R.K., Bik L.P.M. 1993. Changes in chalk-grassland structure and species richness resulting from selective nutrient additions. – Journal of Vegetation Science. Vol. 4 (2). P. 203-212. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2307/3236106/abstract

 

Bryophyte and lichen flora

 

  1. During H.J. van Tooren B. 1988. Pattern and dynamics in the bryophyte layer of a chalk grassland. – In: During H.J., Werger M.J. A., Willems J.H. (eds). Dynamics of pattern and diversity in plant communities. SPB Publ., the Hague, pp. 195-208.
  2. During H.J., van Tooren B.F. 1990. Bryophyte interactions with other plants. – Bot. J. Linn. Soc. Vol. 104. P. 79-98.
  3. During H.J., ter Horst B. 1983. The diaspore banks of bryophytes and ferns in chalk grassland. – Lindbergia. Vol. 9. P. 57-64.
  4. During H.J., Willems J.H. 1986. The impoverishment of the bryophyte and lichen flora of the Dutch chalk grasslands in the thirty years 1953-1983. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 36 (2). P. 143-158. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320786900030
  5. Hope-Simpson J.F. 1941. Studies of the Vegetation of the English Chalk: VII. Bryophytes and Lichens in Chalk Grassland, with a Comparison of Their Occurrence in Other Calcareous Grasslands. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 107-116. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2256221
  6. Gilbert O.L. 1993. The lichens of chalk grassland. – The Lichenologist. Vol. 25 (4). P. 379-414. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=952016&fileId=S0024282993000477
  7. Keizer P.J., van Tooren B.F., During H.J. 1985. Effects of bryophytes on seedling emergence and establishment of short-lived forbs in chalk grassland. – Journal of Ecology. Vol. 73 (2). P. 493-504. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260489
  8. van der Hoeven E.C., During H.J. 1997. The effect of density on size frequency distributions in chalk grassland bryophyte populations. – Oikos Vol. 80. P. 533-539.
  9. van der Hoeven E.C. 1999. Do chalk grassland bryophytes compete? Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 111 p.
  10. van Tooren B.F. 1988. The fate of seeds after dispersal in chalk grassland: the role of the bryophyte layer. – Oikos. Vol. 53 (1). P. 41-48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3565661
  11. van Tooren, B. F. 1989. The ecological role of the bryophyte layer in Dutch chalk grasslands. Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  12. van Tooren, B. F. 1990. Effects of a bryophyte layer on the emergence of seedlings of chalk grassland species. – Acta Oecologica. Vol. 11(2). P. 155-163.
  13. van Tooren B.F., den Hertog J. and Verhaar J. 1988. Cover, biomass and nutrient content of bryophytes in Dutch chalk grasslands. – Linbergia. Vol. 14. P. 47-54.
  14. van Tooren B.F., van Dam D., During H.J. 1990. The relative importance of precipitation and soil as sources of nutrients for Calliergonella cuspidata in chalk grassland. – Funct. Ecol. Vol. 4. P. 101-107.
  15. van Tooren, B. F. van, Hertog, J. den & Verhaar, J. 1988. Cover, biomass and nutrient content of bryophytes in Dutch chalk grasslands. – Lindbergia. Vol. 14. P. 47-54.
  16. van Tooren, B.F.van, Ode, B., During, H. J. & Bobbink, R. 1990. Regeneration of species richness in the bryophyte layer of Dutch chalk grasslands. – Lindbergia. Vol. 16. P. 153-160.
  17. Watson E.V. 1960. A quantitative study of the bryophytes of chalk grassland. – J. Ecology. Vol. 48. № 2. P. 397-414. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2257525

 

Molluscs

 

  1. Cameron R.A.D., Morgan-Huws D.I. 1975. Snail faunas in the early stages of a chalk grassland succession. – Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol. 7 (3). P. 215-229. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1975.tb00741.x/abstract
  2. de Winter A.J. 1985. De invertebratenfauna van de Zuidlimburgse kalkgraslanden Mollusken van kalkgraslanden. – Natuurhistorisch Maandblad. 74(5). P. 80-84. (The invertebrate fauna of the chalk grasslands of South Limburg. Mollusca of chalk grasslands.) http://www.nhgl.nl/documenten/openbaar/redactie/natuurhistorisch-maandblad/Maandbladen/Maandblad%201985/1985-05.pdf
  3. Morton J.E., Machin J. 1959. A key to the land snails of the Flatford area, Suffolk. – Field Studies. Vol. 1. P. 57-71. http://fsj.field-studies-council.org/media/344765/vol1.1_4.pdf
  4. Ruesink J.L. 1995. Snail faunas on chalk grassland: site comparisons and implications for management. – J. Molluscan Studies. Vol. 61 (1). P. 9-20. http://mollus.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/1/9.abstract

 

Insects

 

  1. Butterflies under threat team (Butt). 1986. The management of chalk grassland for butterflies. (Focus on Nature Conservation No. 17.) Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council.
  2. Duffey E., Morris M.G. 1966. The invertebrate fauna of the chalk and its scientific interest. In: Handbook of the Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves. Ch. III. P. 83-94.
  3. Dutoit Thierry, Decaens Thibaud, Alard Didier. 1997. Successional changes and diversity of soft macrofaunal communities on chalk grasslands in Upper-Normandy (France). – Acta Oecologica. Vol. 18 (2). P. 135-149.
  4. Fisher Barham D., Stewart A.J.A. 2005. Differential indirect effects of excluding livestock and rabbits from chalk heath on the associated leafhopper (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) fauna. – Journal of Insect Conservation. Vol. 9. P. 351-361. http://ag.udel.edu/research/delphacid/internalform/files/barham%20&%20stewart%202005.pdf
  5. Hollier J.A., Maczey N., Masters G.J., Mortimer S.R. 2005. Grassland leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) as indicators of habitat condition – a comparison of between-site and between-year differences in assemblage composition. – Journal of Insect Conservation. Vol. 9. P. 299-307. http://ag.udel.edu/delpha/2156.pdf
  6. Lack A.J. 1982. The ecology of flowers of chalk grassland and their insect pollinators. – J. Ecology. Vol. 70 (3). P. 773-790. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260104
  7. Lefeber Br.V. 1985. Wespen (Hymenoptera Bethyloidea, Chrysididae, Trigonalidae, Aculeata). – Natuurhistorisch Maandblad. 74(5). P. 85-91. (The invertebrate fauna of the chalk grasslands of South Limburg. Wasps (Hymenoptera: Bethyloidea, Trigonalidae, Chrysididae and Aculeata part.) http://www.nhgl.nl/documenten/openbaar/redactie/natuurhistorisch-maandblad/Maandbladen/Maandblad%201985/1985-05.pdf
  8. Maczey, N., Masters, G. J., Hollier, J. A., Mortimer, S. R. and Brown, V. K. 2005. Community associations of chalk grassland leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha): conclusions for habitat conservation. – Journal of Insect Conservation. Vol. 9. P. 281-298.
  9. Maczey N. 2006. The auchenorrhyncha communities of chalk grassland in southern England. Dissertation. 230 p. http://kolatest.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2006/61/pdf/Thesis_Auchenorrhyncha_chalk_grassland_Maczey.pdf
  10. Morris M.G. 1967. Differences between the invertebrate faunas of grazed and ungrazed chalk grassland. I. Responses of some phytophagous insects to cessation of grazing. – J. Appl. Ecol. Vol. 4 (2). P. 459-474. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2401348
  11. Morris M.G. 1968. Differences between the invertebrate faunas of grazed and ungrazed chalk grassland. II. The faunas of sample turves. – J. Appl. Ecol. Vol. 5 (3). P. 601-611. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2401635
  12. Morris M.G.M. 1969. Differences between the invertebrate faunas of grazed and ungrazed chalk grassland. III. The heteropterous fauna. – J. Appl. Ecol. Vol. 6 (3). P. 475-487. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2401513
  13. Morris M.G. 1969. Populations of invertebrate animals and the management of chalk grassland in Britain. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 1 (3). P. 225-231. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320769901530
  14. Morris M.G.M. 1971. Differences between the invertebrate faunas of grazed and ungrazed chalk grassland. IV. Abundance and diversity of Homoptera- Auchenorhyncha. – J. Appl. Ecol. Vol. 8 (1). P. 37-52. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2402126
  15. Morris M.G. 1971. Further records of Cymus spp. (Hem., Berytinidae) on chalk grassland. – Entomologist’s monthly Magazine Vol. 107. P. 4.
  16. Morris M.G. 1971. The management of grassland for the conservation of invertebrate animals. In: Duffey E. & Watt A.S. (eds.). The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation. Eleventh Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Vol. 11. P. 527-552.
  17. Morris M.G. 1973. Chalk grassland management and the invertebrate fauna. In: Jermy A.C. & Stott P.A. (eds.). Chalk grassland: studies on its conservation and management in south-east England. Maidstone: Kent Trust for Nature Conservation Special Publ. P. 27-34.
  18. Morris M.G. 1973. The effects of seasonal grazing on the Heteroptera and Auchenorhyncha (Hemiptera) of chalk grassland. – Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol. 10 (3). P. 761-780. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2401868
  19. Morris M.G., Clarke R.T., Rispin W.E. 2005. The success of a rotational grazing system in conserving the diversity of chalk grassland Auchenorrhyncha. – Journal of Insect Conservation. Vol. 9 (4). P. 363-374. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10841-005-8825-8
  20. Woodcock B.A., Pywell R.F., Roy D.B., Rose R.J., Bell D. 2005. Grazing management of calcareous grasslands and its implications for the conservation of beetle communities. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 125. P. 193-202. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207/125/2
  21. Woodcock B.A., Edwards A.R., Lawson C.S., Westbury D.B., Brook A.J., Harris S.J., Masters G., Booth R., Brown V.K., Mortimer S.R. 2010. The Restoration of Phytophagous Beetles in Species-Rich Chalk Grasslands. – Restoration Ecology. Vol. 18 (5). P. 638–644.

 

Spiders

 

  1. Rushton S.P. 1988. The effects of scrub management regimes on the spider fauna of chalk grassland, Castor Hanglands National Nature Reserve, Cambridgeshire, U.K. –Biol. Conserv. Vol. 46 (3). P. 169-182. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320788900663

 

Birds

 

  1. Fuller R.J. 1982. Bird habitats in Britain. T & AD Poyser Ltd.
  2. Morgan R. 197. Breeding Bird Communities on Chalk Downland in Wiltshire. – Bird Study. Vol. 22 (2). P. 71-83. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00063657509476446
  3. Williamson K. 1975. The Breeding Bird Community of Chalk Grassland Scrub in the Chiltern Hills. – Bird Study. Vol. 22 (2). P. 59-70. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00063657509476445

 

Mammals

 

  1. Denyer J.L. 2005. Interactions between rabbits, plants and soil and their consequences for chalk grassland and chalk heath vegetation communities. D. Phil. thesis. University of Sussex.

 

Geology and Landscapes

 

  1. Blackwood J.W., Tubbs C.R. 1970. A quantitative survey of chalk grassland in England. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 3 (1). P. 1-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320770900480
  2. Bush M.B., Flenley J.R. 1987. The age of the British chalk grassland. – Nature. Vol. 329. P. 434-436.

 

Ecosystem processes

 

  1. van Dam, D. 1990. Atmospheric deposition and nutrient cycling in chalk grassland. Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  2. van Speybroek, D. 1989. Synecology of the chalk and limestone grasslands in Belgium, Luxemburg and northern France. Ph.D. thesis. Free University, Brussels, Belgium.

 

Conversation

 

  1. Bobbink R., Willems J.H. 1993. Restoration management of abandoned chalk grassland in the Netherlands. – Biodiversity & Conservation. Vol. 2. Issue 6. P. 616-626. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00051962?LI=true
  2. Chappell H.G., Ainsworth J.F., Cameron R.A.D., Redfern M. 1971. The effect of trampling on a chalk grassland ecosystem. – Journal of applied ecology Vol. 8 (3). P. 869-882. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2402688
  3. Streeter D.T. 1971. The effect of public pressure on the vegetation of chalk downland at Box Hill, Surrey. – In: Duffey E. and Watt A.S. Eds., The scientific management of animal and plant communities for conservation. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. P. 459-468.
  4. Wells T.C.E. 1969. Botanical aspects of conservation management of chalk grasslands. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 2 (1). P. 36-44. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000632076990113X
  5. Willems J.H. 2001. Problems, Approaches, and Results in Restoration of Dutch Calcareous Grassland during the Last 30 Years. – Restoration Ecology Vol. 9 No. 2. pp. 147-154. http://www.biol.uw.edu.pl/pl/files/docs/st_dokt/SD_SCB_Restoration_%20of_Dutch_Calcareous_Grasslands.pdf
  6. Woodcock B.A., Pywell R.F., Roy D.B., Rose R.J., Bell D. 2005. Grazing management of calcareous grasslands and its implications for the conservation of beetle communities. – Biological Conservation. Vol. 125. P. 193-202. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207/125/2
  7. Woodcock B.A., Edwards A.R., Lawson C.S., Westbury D.B., Brook A.J., Harris S.J., Masters G., Booth R., Brown V.K., Mortimer S.R. 2010. The Restoration of Phytophagous Beetles in Species-Rich Chalk Grasslands. – Restoration Ecology. Vol. 18 (5). P. 638–644.